Speakman, who carefully studied the work of Mackinder, proposed his own version of the basic geopolitical scheme, slightly different from the Mackinder model. Speakman's main idea was that Mackinder supposedly overestimated the geopolitical significance of heartland. This reassessment affected not only the current position of forces on the world map, in particular, the power of the USSR, but also the original historical scheme. Speakman believed that the geographical history of the "inner crescent", rimland, "coastal zones", was carried out on its own, and not under the pressure of the "land nomads," as Mackinder believed. From his point of view, heartland is only a potential space that receives all cultural impulses from coastal zones and does not carry in itself any independent geopolitical mission or historical impulse. Rimlandand not heartland, in his opinion, is the key to world domination.